- fact/value distinction
- (or gap) The presumed distinction between statements of fact, thought of as value-free, and statements of value. The distinction is often attributed to Hume, and the separation of fact from value is a platitude of many academic disciplines, and particularly sociology as it was conceived by Durkheim and Weber . It also coheres with common sense, in so far as that regards description and evaluation as different activities. Nevertheless the distinction is heavily criticized, most fundamentally on the ground that it fails to appreciate that the perception of anything as a ‘fact’ may itself involve value-judgements, as may the selection of particular facts as the essential ones. For example, we may say that it is fact that A owed B money, but that it is a value-judgement that it ought to be paid, yet the entire framework of social arrangements within which there arise such things as money and debt is itself a normative construction, and one evidently endorsed by someone claiming the former fact. In other areas, such as aesthetics, phenomenology suggests that recognizing aspects of things blurs into evaluating them. See also thick terms.
Philosophy dictionary. Academic. 2011.
Look at other dictionaries:
Fact-value distinction — The fact value distinction is a concept used to distinguish between arguments which can be claimed through reason alone, and those where rationality is limited to describing a collective opinion. In another formulation, it is the distinction… … Wikipedia
fact-value distinction — In philosophy, the ontological distinction between what is (facts) and what ought to be (values). David Hume gave the distinction its classical formulation in his dictum that it is impossible to derive an ought from an is. See also naturalistic… … Universalium
Fact — For other uses, see Fact (disambiguation). A fact (derived from the Latin Factum, see below) is something that has really occurred or is actually the case. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability, that is whether it can be shown… … Wikipedia
value — /val yooh/, n., v., valued, valuing. n. 1. relative worth, merit, or importance: the value of a college education; the value of a queen in chess. 2. monetary or material worth, as in commerce or trade: This piece of land has greatly increased in… … Universalium
Value product — The value product (VP) is an economic concept formulated by Karl Marx in his critique of political economy during the 1860s, and used in Marxian social accounting theory for capitalist economies. Its annual monetary value is approximately equal… … Wikipedia
value + structural law of value — by David B. Clarke The term value has currency not only in political economy use value, exchange value, surplus value but also in terms of the great humanist criteria of value, the whole civilisation of moral, aesthetic and practical… … The Baudrillard dictionary
Value (semiotics) — In semiotics, the value of a sign depends on its position and relations in the system of signification and upon the particular codes being used.aussure s ValueValue is the sign as it is determined by the other signs in a semiotic system. For… … Wikipedia
Labor theory of value — The labor theories of value (LTV) are theories in economics according to which the values of commodities are related to the labor needed to produce them.There are many different accounts of labor value, with the common element that the value of… … Wikipedia
Surplus value — is a concept created by Karl Marx in his critique of political economy, where its ultimate source is unpaid surplus labor performed by the worker for the capitalist, serving as a basis for capital accumulation.The German equivalent word Mehrwert… … Wikipedia
Objectivist theory of value — Note: This is not to be confused with theories of economic value, which seek to explain why things have different market prices. The Objectivist theory of value is the ethical theory of value held by Objectivists, as propounded by the founder of… … Wikipedia