composition/division, fallacies of
- The fallacy of composition is one of arguing that because something is true of members of a group or collection, it is true of the group as a whole. For example, in Utilitarianism, J. S. Mill appears to argue that since each person desires just their own happiness, people together desire the common happiness. (The correct conclusion has to be that nobody desires the common happiness—the premise of the argument tells us that each person desires just his or her own.) The fallacy of division is the converse fallacy of arguing that if something is true of a group, then it is also true of individuals belonging to it: ‘we used to go for walks together, or at least I did.’ See also collective/distributive.
Philosophy dictionary. Academic. 2011.
Look at other dictionaries:
Fallacy of composition — The fallacy of composition arises when one infers that something is true of the whole from the fact that it is true of some part of the whole (or even of every proper part). For example: This fragment of metal cannot be broken with a hammer,… … Wikipedia
List of fallacies — For specific popular misconceptions, see List of common misconceptions. A fallacy is incorrect argumentation in logic and rhetoric resulting in a lack of validity, or more generally, a lack of soundness. Contents 1 Formal fallacies 1.1… … Wikipedia
Fallacy of division — A fallacy of division occurs when one reasons logically that something true of a thing must also be true of all or some of its parts. An example: A Boeing 747 can fly unaided across the ocean. A Boeing 747 has jet engines. Therefore, one of its… … Wikipedia
Correlative-based fallacies — In logic, correlative based fallacies, also known as fallacies of distraction, are logical fallacies based on correlative conjunctions. Contents 1 Correlative conjunctions 1.1 Examples 2 Fallacies 3 … Wikipedia
Questionable cause — Fallacies of questionable cause, also known as causal fallacies, non causa pro causa ( non cause for cause in Latin) or false cause, are informal fallacies where a cause is incorrectly identified. These include: Correlation implies causation (cum … Wikipedia
Fallacy — In logic and rhetoric, a fallacy is usually incorrect argumentation in reasoning resulting in a misconception or presumption. By accident or design, fallacies may exploit emotional triggers in the listener or interlocutor (appeal to emotion), or… … Wikipedia
Reification (fallacy) — Contents 1 Etymology 2 Theory 3 Difference between reification and hypostatisation … Wikipedia
Outline of logic — The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to logic: Logic – formal science of using reason, considered a branch of both philosophy and mathematics. Logic investigates and classifies the structure of statements and… … Wikipedia
Ambiguity — Sir John Tenniel s illustration of the Caterpillar for Lewis Carroll s Alice s Adventures in Wonderland is noted for its ambiguous central figure, whose head can be viewed as being a human male s face with a pointed nose and pointy chin or being… … Wikipedia
Deductive fallacy — A deductive fallacy is defined as a deductive argument that is invalid. The argument itself could have true premises, but still have a false conclusion. Thus, a deductive fallacy is a fallacy where deduction goes wrong, and is no longer a… … Wikipedia