categories


categories
A permanent concern of philosophers has been to discover whether the most general categories of thought, such as space, time, reality, existence, necessity, substance, property, mind, matter, states, facts, and events, are absolute and universal, to be found in any mode of thought, or whether they are relatively parochial and in principle changeable. In the Categories and the Topics Aristotle lists ten categories: substance, quantity, quality, relation, place, time, posture, state, action, and passion, but he seems not to have been wedded to the idea that this classification was definitive. He held that any ‘uncombined’ term in a sentence stands for one of these (see also paronym ). Other terms are auxiliary terms, later called syncate-gorematic expressions or ones that together with categorical expressions make up a sentence. These include prepositions and logical connectives. In scholastic thought Aristotle's list becomes substance, quantity (the way a body is made up of others, and owes its extension to theirs), the acting and being acted upon of a body (its activity and passivity), qualities arising from the disposition of constitutive parts, spatial and temporal properties, and relations.
Kant's passion for system led him to a fourfold division with three categories in each. Under quantity we have unity, plurality, and totality; under quality we get reality, negation, and limitation; under relation we have inherence and subsistence, causation and dependence, and reciprocity between agent and patient; under modality we have possibility, existence, and necessity. Few have had Kant's faith that this is an exhaustive and principled division. In the modern era Frege's logic gives us a clearer view of the fundamental ways in which information is constructed, and his analysis of language suggests the highly general division of concept and object, but by itself it does not speak to the problems of classification within these categories. A new twist was added by Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1921) in which it is suggested that the fundamental categories of a language show themselves, but their structure and relations are amongst the things that cannot be said. The problem remains of finding a fundamental classification of the kinds of entities recognized in a way of thinking. See also disposition.

Philosophy dictionary. . 2011.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Categories — Category Cat e*go*ry, n.; pl. {Categories}. [L. categoria, Gr. ?, fr. ? to accuse, affirm, predicate; ? down, against + ? to harrangue, assert, fr. ? assembly.] 1. (Logic.) One of the highest classes to which the objects of knowledge or thought… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Categories (Aristotle) — Categories (Lat. Categoriae , Greek Κατηγορίαι Katēgoriai ) is a text from Aristotle s Organon that enumerates all the possible kinds of thing which can be the subject or the predicate of a proposition.The Categories places every object of human… …   Wikipedia

  • Categories (game) — Categories is a word game in which players think of words that begin with specified letters and belong to specified semantic categories. For instance, given the letters in Sargon and the category U.S. states , one can list: *South Carolina… …   Wikipedia

  • Categories for the Working Mathematician — is a textbook in category theory written by American mathematician Saunders Mac Lane, who cofounded the subject together with Samuel Eilenberg. It was first published in 1971, and is based on his lectures on the subject given at the University of …   Wikipedia

  • Categories of rallies — Rallying makes up the majority of the grassroots of amateur motorsport, especially in the UK. Motor Clubs will usually run one or more rallies each year. Joining your local motorclub and getting involved in the various activities is the best way… …   Wikipedia

  • categories of data — Data derived from open sources or from detectable actions that adversaries can piece together or interpret to reach personal conclusions or official estimates concerning friendly intentions, capabilities, or activities. (Note: In operations… …   Military dictionary

  • Equivalence of categories — In category theory, an abstract branch of mathematics, an equivalence of categories is a relation between two categories that establishes that these categories are essentially the same . There are numerous examples of categorical equivalences… …   Wikipedia

  • Isomorphism of categories — In category theory, two categories C and D are isomorphic if there exist functors F : C rarr; D and G : D rarr; C which are mutually inverse to each other, i.e. FG = 1 D (the identity functor on D ) and GF = 1 C . This means that both the objects …   Wikipedia

  • Multi categories security — Computer security portal Linux portal …   Wikipedia

  • Category of small categories — In mathematics, specifically in category theory, the category of small categories, denoted by Cat, is the category whose objects are all small categories and whose morphisms are functors between categories. Cat may actually be regarded as a 2… …   Wikipedia

  • List of dance style categories — This is a list of the dance style categories. These categories are not mutually exclusive and are context dependent (i.e., a particular dance may belong to several categories). For older and more region orientated vernacular dance styles, see… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.