Simpson's paradox

Simpson's paradox
Not a proper paradox, but a surprising possibility in the application of statistics, in which something true of each subset of a population need not be true of the population as a whole. For example, in each separate faculty of a university the rejection rate of men might be higher than that for women, yet overall the rejection rate of women might be higher than that for men. This can occur where women apply in higher numbers to those faculties that have higher pressure of numbers and therefore maintain higher rejection rates overall.

Philosophy dictionary. . 2011.

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