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**Ordered pair**— In mathematics, an ordered pair (a, b) is a pair of mathematical objects. In the ordered pair (a, b), the object a is called the first entry, and the object b the second entry of the pair. Alternatively, the objects are called the first and… … Wikipedia**Exponentiation**— Exponent redirects here. For other uses, see Exponent (disambiguation). Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as an, involving two numbers, the base a and the exponent (or power) n. When n is a positive integer, exponentiation… … Wikipedia**Laws of Form**— (hereinafter LoF ) is a book by G. Spencer Brown, published in 1969, that straddles the boundary between mathematics and of philosophy. LoF describes three distinct logical systems: * The primary arithmetic (described in Chapter 4), whose models… … Wikipedia**formal logic**— the branch of logic concerned exclusively with the principles of deductive reasoning and with the form rather than the content of propositions. [1855 60] * * * Introduction the abstract study of propositions, statements, or assertively used … Universalium**Naive set theory**— This article is about the mathematical topic. For the book of the same name, see Naive Set Theory (book). Naive set theory is one of several theories of sets used in the discussion of the foundations of mathematics.[1] The informal content of… … Wikipedia**relation**— Philosophically relations are interesting because of the historic prejudice, given its most forceful expression by Leibniz, that they are somehow ‘unreal’ compared to the intrinsic, monadic properties of things. A way of putting the idea is that… … Philosophy dictionary**Axiom of pairing**— In axiomatic set theory and the branches of logic, mathematics, and computer science that use it, the axiom of pairing is one of the axioms of Zermelo Fraenkel set theory. Formal statement In the formal language of the Zermelo Frankel axioms, the … Wikipedia**relation**— relationless, adj. /ri lay sheuhn/, n. 1. an existing connection; a significant association between or among things: the relation between cause and effect. 2. relations, a. the various connections between peoples, countries, etc.: foreign… … Universalium**Universe (mathematics)**— In mathematical logic, the universe of a structure (or model ) is its domain.In mathematics, and particularly in applications to set theory and the foundations of mathematics, a universe or universal class (or if a set, universal set – not to be… … Wikipedia**Leibniz formula for determinants**— In algebra, the Leibniz formula expresses the determinant of a square matrix A = (a {ij}) {i,j = 1, dots, n} in terms of permutations of the matrix elements. Named in honor of Gottfried Leibniz, the formula is:det(A) = sum {sigma in S n}… … Wikipedia