Reid, Thomas
(1710–1796)
Scottish philosopher of common sense. Reid was born near Aberdeen and educated at Marischal College. After a period as a Presbyterian minister, he was appointed in 1751 to King's College, Aberdeen. In 1764 he took the chair of moral philosophy at the university of Glasgow. Reid's three important books are the Enquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense (1764), Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man (1785), and Essays on the Active Powers of Man (1788). Reid was the first serious philosopher to attack the British empiricist reliance on ‘ ideas ’ as satisfactory units on which to found a theory of knowledge and meaning. He regarded Berkeley, and especially Hume, as presenting a reductio ad absurdum of the approach to knowledge by the way of ideas. In his own approach, sensations of primary qualities of objects speak to us like words, affording us ‘natural signs’ of the qualities of things. The mind passes naturally over a word to consider what it signifies, and in like manner it passes over its own experience to consider directly the qualities they signify. This is so for ‘original perceptions’ of primary qualities; perceptions of secondary qualities have to be acquired. Reid's insight here has been recaptured in the 20th century in various kinds of direct realism . It enables him to defend the basic conceptual scheme of common sense against what he saw as the corrosive scepticism of Hume. For Reid, as for Moore later, the basic principles of common sense cannot be avoided or abandoned, although if we raise the question of their truth we can only appeal to divine harmony (he may not have been so far from Hume here as he supposed). Reid's influence persisted in the Scottish school of common-sense philosophy, and his phenomenological insights continue to attract modern attention.

Philosophy dictionary. . 2011.

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  • Reid, Thomas — born April 26, 1710, Kincardineshire, Scot. died Oct. 7, 1796, Glasgow Scottish philosopher. He served as a Presbyterian pastor from 1737 to 1751. His lengthy studies of David Hume convinced him that Hume s skepticism was false, because it was… …   Universalium

  • Reid, Thomas — (1710 1796)    A Scottish philosopher, parish minister, and astronomer, who is renowned for his criticism of David Hume (1711 1776). Reid is sometimes referred to as the first person to describe a case of metamorphopsia. Reportedly, he himself… …   Dictionary of Hallucinations

  • Reid, Thomas — (1710 96)    The progenitor of Scottish Common Sense philosophy , a form of realism, Reid launched a blistering attack on the Way of Ideas . This is a notion developed in Descartes and Locke that views mental contents as internal representations… …   Christian Philosophy

  • Reid, Thomas — ► (1710 96) Filósofo escocés. Fundó la llamada «escuela escocesa del sentido común». Afirmó la existencia del mundo exterior y del alma, frente a las tesis de Berkeley y Hume. * * * (26 abr. 1710, Kincardineshire, Escocia–7 oct. 1796, Glasgow).… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Reid, Thomas — See Enlightenment ( …   History of philosophy

  • REID, THOMAS —    Scottish philosopher, and chief of the Scottish school, born in Kincardineshire, and bred for the Scotch Church, in which he held office as a clergyman for a time; was roused to philosophical speculation by the appearance in 1730 of David Hume …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Reid, Thomas — (1710 1796)    Philosopher, was the s. of the minister of Strachan, Kincardineshire, where he was b. His mother was one of the gifted family of the Gregorys. At the age of 12 he was sent to Marischal Coll., Aberdeen, where he graduated, and… …   Short biographical dictionary of English literature

  • Рид Томас / Reid, Thomas — (1710 1796). Рид полагал, но что каждый «индивидуальный ум» владеет большим количеством знаний, чем использует на данный момент. Он также предложил свой вариант психологии способностей …   Психологическая энциклопедия

  • Reid — Reid, Thomas …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Thomas Reid — Thomas Reid. Thomas Reid (Strachan, Kincardineshire, Escocia, 26 de abril de 1710 Glasgow, Escocia, 7 de octubre de 1796) fue un filósofo escocés contemporáneo de David Hume y fundador de la Escuela filosófica escocesa del sentido común;… …   Wikipedia Español

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