- incongruent counterparts
- (or incongruous counterparts )Spatial items which relate to each other as mirror-images do, so that although the same shape, they cannot be superimposed so as to occupy exactly the same volume of space. In three dimensions, a right hand cannot occupy exactly the same space as a left hand. On a two-dimensional plane, a letter L cannot be moved to cover the same letter L reversed. It is notable that in three-dimensional space the letter can be flipped over to cover the reversed version. Similarly, if there were a fourth dimension of space, we could in principle disappear from the three familiar dimensions, flip round, and return with, for instance, our hearts on the right hand side of our bodies. Kant (Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, i. 13) advances incongruent counterparts as a problem for a purely relational theory of space. If we imagine a universe with just one object, say a single hand, it would seem to be determinate whether it is a left hand or a right hand, yet all the spatial relations of its elements will be the same whichever one it is. So a relational theory of space seems unable to account for the difference, and therefore seems to be inadequate.
Philosophy dictionary. Academic. 2011.
Look at other dictionaries:
List of philosophy topics (I-Q) — II and thou I Ching I Ching I proposition I Thou I Thou relationshipIaIamblichus (philosopher)IbYahya Ibn Adi Yahya Ibn Adi Ibn al Arabi Muhyi al Din Ibn al Arabi Abu Bakr Ibn Bajja Abu Bakr Ibn Bājja Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Yahya Ibn as Say igh… … Wikipedia
Christian Lupus — Christian Wolff (philosophe) Pour les articles homonymes, voir Wolff et Christian Wolff. Christian Wolff (1679 1754) … Wikipédia en Français
Christian Wolff (Philosophe) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Wolff et Christian Wolff. Christian Wolff (1679 1754) … Wikipédia en Français
Christian Wolff (philosophe) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Wolff et Christian Wolff. Christian Wolff Philosophe et juriste Époque Moderne … Wikipédia en Français
Christian von Wolff — Christian Wolff (philosophe) Pour les articles homonymes, voir Wolff et Christian Wolff. Christian Wolff (1679 1754) … Wikipédia en Français
Christian wolff (philosophe) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Wolff et Christian Wolff. Christian Wolff (1679 1754) … Wikipédia en Français
enantiomorphs — See incongruent counterparts … Philosophy dictionary
fourth dimension — Since the theory of relativity it has been orthodox to treat time alongside the other three spatial dimensions, as the fourth dimension of a unified space time . In the late 19th century, physicists such as Helmholtz popularized work of Riemann… … Philosophy dictionary
Male–female income disparity in the United States — Main article: Gender pay gap Median weekly earnings of full time wage and salary workers, by sex, race, and ethnicity, 2009. Male–female income diference, also referred to as the gender gap in earnings in t … Wikipedia
hydrosphere — /huy dreuh sfear /, n. the water on or surrounding the surface of the globe, including the water of the oceans and the water in the atmosphere. [1885 90; HYDRO 1 + SPHERE] * * * Discontinuous layer of water at or near the Earth s surface. It… … Universalium